Monte Carlo methods use repeated random sampling to determine the properties of some phenomenon.

## Random number generation

Although random number generation is not part of the Monte Carlo methodology, the latter feeds from and has helped the development of the former.

Types of random numbers in decreasing order of randomness:

1. True random numbers: numbers generated from stochastic processes;
2. Pseudorandom numbers: deterministic integer sequences with long period that pass some statistical tests of random sequences when provided some random initial state; (pioneered by von Neumann in 1946 for the Manhattan project)
• Cryptographically secure pseudorandom numbers: pseudorandom numbers that pass ...;
3. Low-discrepancy sequences (quasi-random sequences): all subsequences have low discrepancy;

Monte Carlo methods use random or, more commonly, pseudorandom numbers. Quasi-Monte Carlo methods use quasi-random numbers.

### True random number generator

A true random number generator (TRNG) or hardware random number generator is a physical device that generates random numbers from a physical stochastic process, such as thermal noise, the photoelectric effect involving a beam splitter, and other quantum phenomena.

Random number can also be generated from macroscopic processes, justified by unstable dynamic systems and chaos theory. Common practices use tools such as yarrow, coin, dice, roulette wheel, and lottery machines.

Hardware RNGs have limited random bits per second. As a trade-off between randomness and speed, TRNGs typically serve as the entropy source (seed provider) for CSPRNGs or PRNGs.

### Pseudo-random number generator

A pseudorandom number generator (PRNG) or deterministic random bit generator (DRBG) is an algorithm using deterministic polynomial time computable functions to generating numbers computationally indistinguishable from true random numbers. Symbolically, given polynomial time computable functions $$G_k : \{0,1\}^{k}\to \{0,1\}^{p(k)}$$ where polynomial $$p: p(k) > k, \forall k \in \mathbb{Z}_+$$, for any probabilistic polynomial time binary classifier $$A$$ and $$x, r$$ chosen randomly from $$\{0,1\}^k$$ and $$\{0,1\}^{p(k)}$$ respectively, exists some negligible function $$\mu$$ such that:

$\left| \Pr {A(G_k(x)) = 1} - \Pr {A(r) = 1} \right| < \mu(k)$

Randomness tests are statistical tests on whether a binary sequence is patternless; a widely used collection of tests is the Diehard Battery of Tests {Marsaglia1996}. TestU01 {L’Ecuyer and Simard, 2007} is a popular randomness test suite written in ANSI C.

Classes of PRNGs in increasing order of quality:

1. Linear congruential generators (LCG, 线性同余): defined by the recurrence relation $$N_{n+1} = (a N_{n} + c) \bmod m$$; in case increment $$c=0$$, the LCG is called a multiplicative congruential generator (MCG) or Lehmer RNG, such as Wichmann-Hill;
2. Lagged Fibonacci generator (LFG): defined by the recurrence relation $$S_{n} = S_{n-j} \star S_{n-k} \pmod m$$ where $$0<j<k$$ abd $$\star$$ is a general binary operator; an example LFG is subtract-with-carry {Marsaglia and Zaman, 1991};
3. Linear recurrences: linear feedback shift registers (LFSR), Mersenne-Twister, Well Equidistributed Long-period Linear (WELL) {Panneton, L'Ecuyer, Matsumoto, 2006}, xorshift {Marsaglia2003};

The first fast and high-quality PRNG is Mersenne-Twister (MT, 梅森旋转) {Matsumoto and Nishimura, 1998}, which is a twisted generalised linear feedback shift register (GFSR) of rational normal form with period of a Mersenne prime. Mersenne-Twister is by far the most widely used general-purpose PRNG, and is the default PRNG in may software systems such as GLib, GMP, GSL, R and Python. MT19937 is the most commonly used version of Mersenne Twister, which has a 624-dimensional state space of 32-bit integers, a period of $$M_19937 = 2^19937-1$$ and is equi-distributed in up to 623 dimensions of 32-bit integers. Disadvantages of MT19937 include: large state buffer (2496 Bytes), slow, does not pass all randomness tests (linear complexity), very slow recovery from state spaces with a large number of zeros.

A PRNG is cryptographically secure (CSPRNG) if it is considered suitable for use in cryptography, such as key generation. Specifically, a PRNG $$G_k(s_i) = (s_{i+1}, y_i)$$ with state length $$k$$ and output block length $$t(k)$$ is forward-secure if given a random initial state $$s_1$$, $$(y_1, y_2, \dots, y_i, s_{i+1})$$ and $$(r_1, r_2, \dots, r_i, s_{i+1})$$ are computationally indistinguishable for any $$i \in \mathbb{Z}_+$$.

### Quasi-random sequences

For a set $$P = \{x_1, \dots, x_N\}$$, let $\lambda_s$ be the $$s$$-dimensional Lebesgue measure, $$A(B;P)$$ the number of points in $$P$$ that fall into $$B$$, and $$J$$ the set of $$s$$-dimensional closed-below-open-above boxes, its discrepancy is defined as:

$D_N (P) = \sup_{B \in J} \left| \frac{A(B;P)}{N} - \lambda_s (B) \right|$

The discrepancy of a sequence is low if the proportion of points in the sequence falling into an arbitrary set is nearly proportional to the measure of the set. Low discrepancy is a property of uniformly distributed random sequences. But low discrepancy sequences typically look more even than pseudo-random sequences.

## Topics in Monte Carlo methods

### Pseudo-random number sampling

Transform uniformly distributed pseudo-random numbers into numbers distributed according to a given probability distribution.

Sampling from continuous distributions:

• Independent samples
• Convolution random number generator
• Inverse transform sampling
• Rejection sampling: Box–Muller transform, Marsaglia polar method, Ziggurat algorithm;
• Correlated samples, posterior distributions of objective Bayesian inference
• Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC): Gibbs sampling, Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, Wang and Landau algorithm, slice sampling;

To sampling from a discrete distribution, take uniform pseudo-random numbers and search for the index $$i$$ of the enclosing interval, whose width is equal to the probability $$P(i)$$. Search algorithms: linear search, O(n); binary search, O(log(n)); indexed search (aka cutpoint method); Alias method, O(1);

### Numerical integration

multivariate integration with irregular boundaries:

• Recursive stratified sampling
• Importance sampling: the Metropolis algorithm

In numerical integration, quasi-Monte Carlo methods normally have a faster order of convergence than Monte Carlo methods.

### Simulation

Stochastic evolution equations

Mean field particle Monte Carlo:

• Quantum Monte Carlo, Diffusion Monte Carlo
• Sequential Monte Carlo (particle filter);