Generically, it means relating to an ideal standard or model.

Normative economics

Normative economics deals with questions of what sort of economic policies should be pursued, in order to achieve desired (that is, valued, ibid.) economic outcomes.

Normative economics is a part of economics that expresses value or normative judgments about economic fairness, or what the outcome of the economy or goals of public policy ought to be.

Normative economics considers the ranking of economic policies or outcomes as to acceptability.

Subfields of normative economics include social choice theory, cooperative game theory, and mechanism design.

Positive economics [实证经济学]

Positive economics is the branch of economics that concerns the description and explanation of economic phenomena.

🏷 Category=Economics